Wednesday, June 1, 2016

Gemstones Discovered

Rough ruby, sapphire, iolite and kyanite gems in schist from Wyoming 
Ever since the GemHunter began searching for gemstones in Colorado, Montana and Wyoming, more than a hundred previously unreported gem and semi-precious-gemstone deposits were discovered simply by using sound geological methods that most prospectors can learn in a short time. For example, after the GemHunter made a discovery of ruby and sapphire in a host rock known as vermiculite (referred to as glimmerite in eastern Europe), all the GemHunter did was to pick up a copy of a booklet on 'Vermiculite Deposits of Wyoming' and visited many of the deposits described in the book and identified another 5 ruby and sapphire deposits - sounds simple doesn't it?

Well how did the GemHunter know there was a correlation? Easy. Ruby and sapphire are aluminum oxides (Al2O3) and vermiculite is a mica rich rock enriched in aluminum oxide that was subjected to relatively high pressure and temperature in the geological past. Thus, the chemistry, pressure and temperature were just right to form ruby- and sapphire- bearing vermiculite deposits: now its up to you to search Montana and Colorado for similar deposits, as well as get your own copy of the Vermiculite booklet and search for these gems in Wyoming.

The book that has led to many recent gem
discoveries in the US.
Then the GemHunter found some beautiful specimens of iolite in iolite schist and high-pressure gneiss at Palmer Canyon several years ago. Along with the largest iolite reported in the world at that time, he also recovered many fabulous iolite gems that weighed more than 100 carats each. This led to a second discovery (that he predicted in a publication) at Grizzly Creek Wyoming where he found enormous specimens of gem-quality iolite including the largest ever found. Some were possibly as large as a VW Bug and had to be left in outcrop. As far as we are aware, these still remain untouched!

He decided to search another old publication on 'Cordierite in Wyoming' for more iolite. Why cordierite? Cordierite is the mineralogist term for iolite. So using the old publication, he discovered more iolite northeast of Laramie, Wyoming along a road.

The early Cordierite report about a deposit at Ragged Top Mountain in the Laramie Mountains likely described the largest gemstone deposit on earth without realizing it. The early geologists searched the cordierite deposit as a source of magnesium, one of the important ions in the cordierite crystal structure, but they never mentioned the presence of iolite or any gem material. But based on their sampling report of the Cordierite deposit - they may have accidentally identified a world-class iolite (cordierite) deposit in several trenches (it is important to note that they did not dig any deep trenches or drill holes on the Ragged-Top Sherman Mountain deposit, thus it is likely there is considerable material at depth!!!). 

But based the the early trenching and sampling of the deposit, more than 500 tons of the cordierite (this converts to about 2.5 trillion carats!!!) was measured at the surface. Who knows how much of this was gem quality and how many trillions of carats of the gemstone lie at depth? So what did the Wyoming Government do about this major discovery?

A book about gold in Wyoming
The GemHunter (who was a member of the Wyoming Geological Survey at the time) investigated the fringe of the deposit along the 9th street (Rogers Canyon) road north of Laramie near the old Strong mine and found excellent-gem-quality iolite gems a carat and more in weight in the road cuts providing evidence that the iolite deposit at Ragged Top is rich in the gemstone, but much of the deposit lies on private property. As soon as the GemHunter made the discovery, his field field vehicle was confiscated and he was no longer allowed to conduct field research. The State Geologist and Director even reassigned the GemHunter's field vehicle to his own personal secretary (who by the way never did any field work, let alone much office work). Do you think there was something amiss in the state geologist's office?

Anyway, there were other discoveries made by the GemHunter including peridot in the Leucite Hills, Mexican fire opal in the Cedar Rim area, gold in dozens of places - and the list goes on and on and on.

So, my prospecting friend, all of this information is available in the GemHunter's book on A Guide to Finding Gemstones at Amazon, which is mostly about Wyoming, but the geology and geochemistry, should apply to most places in the world.







Some of the first faceted gemstones found in Palmer Canyon, Wyoming
After the book was released, several reports of new gold occurrences were made in Colorado, Montana and Wyoming, some valuable diamonds were found in Colorado and North Carolina, opal was found in Wyoming, many gems of labradorite (spectrolite) were reported in Wyoming. Others followed up on the GemHunter's Book and found rubies, sapphires, peridot, gem garnets, iolite and others found gold using the GemHunter's Gold Book.

Gem quality diamonds from Wyoming
So, has everything been found and discovered? Not yet. There are still likely hundreds of deposits in Wyoming alone that remain to be discovered and when the GemHunter left Wyoming, he was on the trail of more gold deposits, more ruby deposits, more iolite deposits, more diamond deposits, more spectrolite deposits and also had evidence for more opal deposits including one that could be a major opal and agate deposit near Douglas Wyoming. It is interesting to note that when the GemHunter worked for the Wyoming Geological Survey, at least one to more than a dozen new gemstone and gold deposits were found each year in the Cowboy state. Can any other state make that claim?

A 12-carat rough pink sapphire recovered from Palmer Canyon, Wyoming by Vic Norris.


Thursday, August 4, 2011

Wyoming - the TOP GEMSTONE state in US

Author, gem hunter, geologist & consultant,
Dan Hausel prepares to go underground at 
the Inspiration mine, Superior, Arizona
Wyoming is the Equality State, the Jade State, the Windy State, the Cowboy State, the Coal state & now the Gemstone State! So how did this happen?

Prior to 1975, only jade and a few agates were known in Wyoming and the Cowboy state appeared to be one of the poorest states in the union when it came to gemstones and gold. But from 1975 to 2007, this all changed and Wyoming became the gemstone capital of North America with the most diverse collection of documented gems of any state in the US. It even has some Armalcolite, a mineral first discovered on the moon and later in Australia and Wyoming (Hausel, 2006)!

It took hard work, dedication and a willingness of a couple of geologists who loved to spend time in the field looking for colored gemstones, diamonds, gold, and unique minerals and rocks as well as mapping large regions of the state in search for mineral deposits.

While other geologists wore loafers to work at the Wyoming Geological Survey (WGS), these two wore out many pairs of field boots walking the country side in search of new mineral deposits. And it is important to recognize that before Ray Harris passed away from stress induced in the work place, and Dan Hausel retired to get out of a horrible situation, the two had been working to find other rare mineral deposits and decorative stones. After Wyoming loss both, no new WGS discoveries have been reported in the state even though there likely are many more mineral deposits to be found and many follow-up studies that need to be conducted. Prior to the loss of these two, they were finding a couple to more than a dozen new mineral and decorative stone deposits each year. A discovery rate that few well-financed mining companies could compare to, yet these two had little exploration money.

As an example, the diamond rush in Canada that followed the discovery of the Ekati diamondiferous kimberlites cost $millions for each new kimberlite discovery - and each discovery required teams of geologists with supportive geochemical, geophysical and airborne surveys. And, capitalization for the Ekati mine cost more than $1 billion! Yes, much of the exploration for diamonds was in the Canadian tundra, but Wyoming often has comparable weather producing short field seasons.

A sample processing unit created at the WGS by Jay Roberts because of
limited funding. This was created to float micro-diamonds from crushed 
samples of kimberlite. In addition to this diamond flotation unit, our lab
technician later found an old Wilfley table, crushers, etc in the dumpster
outside the old NRRI (Natural Resource Research Institute) building on
campus. Our dumpster diver recovered some of these and later we were 
able to obtain other second hand equipment and rock crushers no longer 
needed by NRRI as that institute closed its doors.  The Wilfley Table was 
used for heavy mineral extraction and later modified to include 
grease table to extract diamonds. The tables worked, but should have been
placed in a museum with the micro-diamond flotation unit.
Yet, over three decades, the two Wyoming geologists received a total combined state funds of less than $100,000. One might argue that these two did not find much of value - but, Harris attracted a whole new industry to Wyoming with his work on decorative rocks and stones and Hausel found many gold anomalies including at least one (and possibly several) large gold deposit, palladium anomalies, nickel anomalies, diamonds, rubies, sapphires, the largest iolite deposit in the world, and was working on verifying another gemstone deposit that potentially contained more than $2.4 trillion carats of iolite! It can easily be argued that Hausel's work led to the hundreds of gold prospectors and hobbyists that search for gold in Wyoming each summer.

Hausel also mapped (geologically) more than 1,000 km2 in Wyoming's mineralized regions and many of its old abandoned gold mines, and provided the Cowboy state with insight into Wyoming's ancient Archean craton and greenstone belts, its diamond districts (he mapped the two largest kimberlite districts in the US [Iron Mountain and State Line] and the largest lamproite field in North America [Leucite Hills]) and other features overlooked by other geologists. Harris introduced many companies to industrial minerals and decorative stones and both presented hundreds of lectures and talks to the general pubic and industry and published hundreds of papers, books and maps bringing Wyoming from its brink of geological dark ages. The largest state budget either had to work with was typically $2,000/year; and in many years this was less. When Hausel made significant gold discoveries in the Seminoe Mountains and Rattlesnake Hills in 1981, he had only $100/year for assays in his budget - enough to pay for about 5 sample analyses. As a result, lab technicians at the WGS had to be very creative in sample processing. Just with raw determination, an insatiable curiosity, field vehicles (that were confiscated from both in 2005-2006 by the Director and assigned to his personal secretary) and gas card, each was able to find and identify previously unknown or unrecognized mineral resources. Few other State geological surveys (let alone countries) could match their accomplishments.

Emerald jade with quartz inclusions, Granite Mountains area,
Wyoming
Even with all of the obstacles placed path, Wyoming is now known to have many mineral deposits and gemstones (and probably some minerals we haven't thought of yet). So renaming the Jade State to be the ‘GEMSTONE STATE’ is only natural (do not confuse this with Idaho's 'Gem State' designation).

Chalcopyrite in breccia, Kurtz-Chatterton mine, Encampment
Prior to 1975, a few people knew Wyoming had agates and some of the highest quality jade in the world. Jade was named the state gemstone. But most figured no other gemstones would be found.

Over the next few years, more than 40 diamond pipes and dikes were discovered – half in Wyoming and half in Colorado by a couple of geologists from Colorado - Dr. M.E. McCallum and Dr. D.H. Eggler. Several properties were later mined for diamonds including George Creek, Sloan, and Kelsey Lake and more than a hundred thousand diamonds were recovered including gemstones larger than 28 carats. This included a 6.5 carat diamond in Wyoming and the 28 carat diamond in  Colorado and the companies barely touched the surface of the known diamond deposits (Hausel, 2004). Many times as many diamonds were left in the ground and potentially thousands of carats in the nearby streams.

Specularite with chalcopyrite from Puzzler Hill, Wyoming
Hausel began searching for diamonds and kimberlites and found a couple of previously unreported kimberlites. These discoveries continued to pile up with Hausel finding a group of diamond pipes and a few hundred anomalous features termed cryptovolcanic structures that look like diamond pipes from the air and remain to be tested. Out of 300 such anomalies, only one of these were ever tested due to budget constraints! Some of the cryptovolcanic structures may be diamond pipes, but they need to be drilled. These were found in many locations in Colorado and Wyoming including Lost Lakes, Happy Jack, Indian Guide, Medicine Bows, Plumbago Canyon, Twin Mountain Lakes, Red Feather Lakes and nearby regions! And while mapping the Iron Mountain kimberlite district, Sheep Rock district and the State Line district, other kimberlites and diamond backs were found. Mapping the Leucite Hills lamproite field in a search for diamonds, Hausel found gem-quality peridot instead of diamonds, but he feels the area might still produce diamonds and had asked for an extended budget from the State to conduct an airborne EM (magnetic & conductivity) survey over the volcanic field as he proposed that olivine lamproites could easily hide under thin layers of soil similar to the Ellendale field in Australia. Then there was a discovery of diamonds in lamprophyre breccia pipes at Cedar Mountain Wyoming and an enormous diamond-indicator mineral anomaly that still remains unexplained (McCandless, Nash and Hausel, 1995). 

Rosasite with quartz, Jelm Mountain, Wyoming
In 1981, Wyoming was pretty much unknown for gold even though all of the surrounding states had produced considerable gold in the past. Gold was discovered at South Pass in Wyoming in 1842, but nothing much was ever done due to hostilities between Whites and Indians. Then significant anomalies of gold were identified in the Seminoe Mountains in 1981 within a district that had some short-lived mining in the 19th century (Hausel, 1994). The Rawlins Times reported a gold rush to the area filled all of the motels in Rawlins, Saratoga, Sinclair and even Laramie with people wanting a piece of the pie. It was Timberline Minerals from Dubois who tied up the property. The company president, John Wells indicated they had drilled the discovery site at Bradley Peak and picked up samples of quartz and iron formation with visible gold verifying the discovery by Hausel.

Kimberlitic indicator minerals (pyrope garnet, almandine garnet, chromian
diopside and chromian enstatite recovered from anthills.
In the same year, Hausel made another gold discovery that may someday lead to a gold mine in central Wyoming: the gold was discovered in the Rattlesnake Hills northwest of Casper (Hausel, 1996). This discovery was significant as it has led to considerable claim staking, exploration by several mining companies, and $millions in drilling. The Casper Journal reported minable gold was confirmed in the new district west of Casper.

In this greenstone belt, gold anomalies were identified with breccias, stockworks and veins. Later, Newmont Gold, Canyon Resources and Evolving Gold found a giant gold deposit sitting under a breccia adjacent to an alkalic intrusive named Sandy Mountain. In recent years, Evolving Gold explored the property and the discovery is thought to be similar to the Cripple Creek gold deposits in Colorado. In collaboration with state legislator and consulting geologist David Miller; Hausel and Wayne Sutherland of the WGS suggested that a large gold deposit likely had been discovered in this area by Newmont Gold following up on the discovery by Hausel. And Biz West from Boulder, Colorado along with Miller and others (2000) reported other significant mineral deposits were sitting undeveloped including the large gold-copper deposit at the Copper King just outside of Cheyenne.

Six other geologists and Hausel went on to discover another major gold deposit in Alaska while on leave from the WGS in 1988 – a deposit that has more than 41 million ounces - more than twice the amount of gold mined in the entire mining history of the Klondike and more than 200 times the amount of gold mined in Wyoming throughout its history. The Donlin Creek gold deposit in Alaska is one of the largest ever found in North America and was discovered by seven geologists that included three from Wyoming: Dr. Paul Graff, Mark Bronston, and Dan Hausel. The group was awarded the prestigious 2009 Canadian 'Thayer Lindsley Award for a Major International Discovery', and Hausel was awarded the 2004 Wyoming Geological Association's 'Distinguished Service Award', the only geologist in the history of the Wyoming Geological Survey to receive such top honors and possibly the only government geologist in the USA to receive this distinction. Hausel made the cover of ICMJ’s Prospecting and Mining Journal in 2005 after finding and mapping more gemstone deposits that included some of the largest gems in the world. Hausel received awards outside the WGS agency for these discoveries.

Kyanite eclogite nodule from the Aultman 2 kimberlite, Wyoming State Line district. Specimen contains gem kyanite,
chromian diopside and garnet.
Harris and Hausel found a variety of agates and Hausel found some source beds of the Sweetwater agate – a beautiful dendritic agate. Many of these were described in a book by Hausel and Sutherland (2000). The group documented jasper deposits and found a variety of banded agates in one of the largest opal fields in North America and started an opal rush! So many people headed to the hills to make their fortunes in opal, they tripped over one another to get to the best spot.

Rough diamonds 
Harris and Hausel found and described some onyx and Mexican onyx deposits. While mapping South Pass – a known gold district from the 1800s, Hausel expanded the knowledge of the mineral deposits and identified significant gold anomalies at the Carissa, Wolf, Duncan, Tabor Grand and other historical mines and identified more than 200 gold anomalies. The gold anomaly at the Carissa was enormous, but the property was purchased with Wyoming tax money and quickly withdrawn by the State Legislature in a veil of secrecy so that it could never be mined. Then there were significant gold veins found at Mineral Hill and Purgatory Gulch. He identified a large gold anomaly at the Kurtz-Chatterton copper deposit along Copper Creek in the Sierra Madre.

Hausel found some diamond deposits, discovered at least six ruby and sapphire deposits including two of the largest rubies in the world. Billions of carats of gem-quality kyanite were identified - this gem was everywhere in Wyoming's mountain ranges but no one had even recognized its gemstone character even though other geologists were walking over these minerals in the field every year.

Faceted iolite and ruby from Palmer Canyon, Wyoming
Hausel and also George Snyder of the USGS also independently found or recognized at least four iolite deposits including the two largest in the world (one with possibly more than two trillion carats). Two of the largest iolites in the world were recovered by Hausel – one weighed more than 24,000 carats. The iolite gems  look just like sapphire and similar to tanzanite but sell for much lower prices. Even so, estimates suggest the combined worth of just the iolite gems could potentially pay for a year's worth of the Obama's national debt.

Highwall of the Kelsey Lake diamond mine on the Colorado-Wyoming
border. The kimberlite was recognized by Dr. David Eggler and its
potential as a diamond mine was later recognized by Howard Coopersmith
Before he passed away, Ray Harris (1991, 2003) had identified many decorative stone deposits resulting in a previously undeveloped industry in Wyoming, and before Dan Hausel had enough of the Gothic politics in Wyoming, Hausel had found, discovered, or recognized gem-quality apatite, specularite, peridot, pyrope, spessartine, chrome diopside, chrome enstatite, ruby, sapphire, amethyst, Mexican opal, precious opal, common opal, the largest opals in the world (some more than 75,000 carats), aquamarine, helidor, zoisite, epidote, Mexican onyx, onyx, hematite, diamonds, spectrolite, platinum, palladium, hundreds of gold deposits and anomalies, nickel, rare jade pseudomorphs after quartz, gem-quality wulfenite, and identified the first reported mineral specimens of rosasite, ilsemannite and berthierite in Wyoming. And these discoveries sparked discoveries by others that included jade, placer diamonds, tourmaline, labradorite, minyulite and varisite.

Wyoming should now be referred to as the Gemstone State for all of the occurrences of agatejasper, chalcedony, common opalfire opalprecious opalmexican onyxgold nuggets, pyrope garnet, spessartine garnet, almandine garnet, rare chlorite pseudomorphs after almandinechrome diopside, chrome enstatite, kyanitesillimanitecordieritestauroliteioliteruby, sapphire, peridotfluorite, industrial diamond, gem diamondspeculariteapatiteminyuliteamethystquartzmilky quartzrose quartzberylaquamarine, jade, silicified banded iron formation, cuprite, gem-quality schorlite (black tourmaline), jasperoid, labradorite, grunerite, moonstone, amber, chrysocollaheliodorvarisite, rare jade pseudomorphs after quartzmalachiteargentite, wulfenite & other minerals. This does not even include many of the unusual and rare rock types found in Wyoming including kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre, kyanite eclogite, eclogite, diamondiferous eclogite, garnet peridotite, diamondiferous garnet peridotite, pyroxenite, anorthosite and others. In reality, Wyoming is a rock hound's paradise. And if someone examines the Sunlight Basin, Copper Mountain, central Laramie Mountains, Bighorn Basin, Powder River Basin in a search for new minerals and gemstones with the same enthusiasm as Harris and Hausel, this list will continue to grow.

Geologist reflected in Wyoming Jade (nephrite).
So how many people walked over opal and agate in the Cedar Rim area over the past century? Apparently hundreds and even possibly thousands. yet, one of the largest opal and agate deposits in the world was exposed in the Cedar Rim oil field south of Riverton. Boulders of the opal sat in road cuts of service roads to the field, and the deposit was scattered over 16 square miles and even had some opal exposed in the US Highway south of Riverton. You would think someone would have looked to see what these boulders were made of - some of the opal boulders weighed more than 100,000 carats. And the Bureau of Land Management was so upset by this discovery, they wanted to withdraw the property before they even knew where in Wyoming it was located! Now that is a group of environmentalists who are completely out of control. It should be noted that a few occurrences of opal were mentioned only in passing by US Geological Survey scientists who didn't even bother to examine the occurrences. This is typical of many deposits and discoveries. Now, Hausel believes he may have located another large opal and agate deposit just from aerial photos and described the extensive occurrence in his recent book on Gemstones. In the past, he would have just driven to the site from the WGS in Laramie to prove or disprove the presence of a new opal field - but so far, the deposit just remains unexplored.

Fluorite in limonite from Bear Lodge Mountains (low-value
gemstone)
His peridot discovery was also interesting. Peridot is gem-quality olivine. For more than 100 years, olivine was known in the Leucite Hills of Wyoming. Some famous geologists looked at the peridot, briefly mentioned it in passing, but not one realized that it was gem-quality. Then in 1997, the professor was in the Leucite Hills looking for diamonds when he spotted two anthills that were green in color. He collected these anthills: no diamonds, but 13,000 carats of cuttable peridot were collected by these ants adjacent to an access road! By the way, Hausel found minerals in nearby rocks that indicated some of the Leucite Hills may be similar to the diamond deposits at Ellendale and Argyle in Australia. Yet, no one has looked for diamonds in this area.

So, after all of these discoveries and putting Wyoming in the lime light - Ray Harris and Dan Hausel ran into a political agenda that did not favor Wyoming or them. Harris died, Hausel retired, and the director was appointed head of another agency at the University of Wyoming. Who knows how many other mineral and gemstone deposits would have been found if these two would have been supported by the WGS. At the end of their WGS careers, Harris was still working on finding new decorative stones and Hausel found evidence of another iolite deposit, more ruby deposits, placer diamond deposits, hundreds of possible kimberlites and had developed an exploration model for aluminum and aluminum-silicate gemstones that possibly would have led to discoveries of additional gemstone deposits in central Wyoming. It is rare in history that people like Harris and Hausel come along who see things differently than others. May Ray Harris rest in peace!

Final note - Publication (pdf) downloads from the WGS continue to be modified, so when they again change their links to produce broken links, please contact them at 307-766-2286.

Faceted Wyoming peridot surrounded by peridot rough, Leucite Hills
Want to know how to recognize gemstones in the hills, where to look and where to find
many more occurrences? The GemHunter's new guide (published in 2014) tells you
exactly how to find gemstones, what they look like and provides dozens upon
dozens of examples including probable new agate, opal, aquamarine, diamond, gold
and other deposits - many have not yet been investigated. This means you maybe able
to find your own treasure using this book.

Like us on Facebook and follow us on Gem Hunter and learn more about gemstones and gold.

Ruby encased in zoisite reaction rim, Granite Mountains, Wyoming

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

GEMSTONES, MINERALS & ROCKS OF WYOMING

A book by Hausel at Amazon
Gemstones, Minerals and Rocks of Wyoming is a book for collectors, rock hounds, mineralogists and prospectors that will provide you with information on what the gems and rocks really look like in Wyoming. Written by the Wyoming's expert on minerals, W. Dan Hausel, this book will even tell you where to look to find these rocks and minerals.

Over a period of 29 years, the author found and discovered several minerals that were previously unreported in Wyoming and also discovered more than a hundred new gemstone and gold localities.

The Planet News notes that prior to 1975, Wyoming was known as the 'Jade State'. But this all changed over the next 3 decades primarily due to the efforts of two geologists - one was W. Dan Hausel.

This book tells you about diamonds and their host rocks, where to find diamond deposits that also include several other gemstones. The book tells you about the sapphire and ruby discoveries by the author and how his research led to these discoveries and why there are more deposits to be found. It tells about the discoveries of the largest gemstone deposits on earth in Wyoming, made because of the author's unique understanding of the geology of the state. Discussions on the discovery of one of the largest opal deposits in North America occurred right under every one's noses, but no one paid any attention. Imagine opals as large as 80,000 carats sitting next to access roads in an oil field being ignored by oil field workers, rock hounds and even many geologists.

Look what others have written about this book that is rated at 4.5 stars -

Buy it, you will like it
Kurt Kephart (Billings, Montana)
If you are into rocks & minerals of Wyoming, this book gives you a 30 year short cut. The author has combined his expertise, experience and passion for geology into a no-nonsense, x marks the spot, book. I recently took several trips to Wyoming from my home state of Montana and found the Sweetwater agates and white opals in the location given in the book. I am looking forward to my next adventure to Wyoming.

Paulette Dilks
Dan puts in more information than the casual reader might be able to assimilate. However I believe the book is useful and interesting to all readers. He literally tells you where to go (you may have to climb a mountain) to find gemstones and his history (and I have followed him on his free blog and on CanadianRockhounder) bears out his personal success at this.

Cecil C. Chittenden   
This is the best book I have ever read on Rouckhounding, For detailed info on specific areas of Wyoming this book can't be beat. Dan Hausel is an expert in this area.

Jill Randolph  
I was surprised that diamonds aren't always found in coal!  This was very informative on different minerals.

Mario Slavinec
I did. I followed him into two field trips. He is very nice, very very knowledgeable and happy to share...

Over 30 years, >1,000 books, papers, maps and abstracts were published, >1,000 square kilometers were mapped in the field (much of it virgin terrain which included four greenstone belts, the two largest diamondiferous kimberlite districts in the US and the largest lamproite field in North America), hundreds of mineral discoveries were made, and the author presented more than 400 public lectures on geology and mineral deposits. The author is considered the authority on gold, diamonds, gemstones, mineral resources, minerals, rocks, Archean geology, and kimberlite vulcanology in Wyoming and on diamonds in the US.

The largest iolite gemstone ever found -
24,150 carats discovered by the author
in Grizzly Creek. However, this gem is
dwarfed by the stones left in outcrop.

A 1,750 carat iolite gemstone found at Palmer Canyon by
the author. The highest quality iolite of its size in he world.



Imagine wearing this gemstone. All of
tan rock behind the geologist is solid
iolite. It extends from the geologist, to
the top of the photo and
down into the earth for an unknown
depth. The author could not figure out
how to get this stone out of the Laramie
Mountains. It likely weighs 10 to 20
million carats!
One of the largest rubies ever found. The
author mapped the Red Dwarf ruby deposit
in the Granite Mountains and found dozens of
large rubies partially replaced by zoisite. A
half-dozen other ruby deposits were found
using geological methods.


One of many large faceted rubies and sapphires from the
Palmer Canyon discovery by the author.




Gem-quality pyrope, spessartine, almandine garnet and
chromian diopside found by the author.
How and where to find gold! Available at Amazon.